Tofacitinib Tablets

Name: Tofacitinib Tablets

Description

XELJANZ/XELJANZ XR are formulated with the citrate salt of tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor.

Tofacitinib citrate is a white to off-white powder with the following chemical name: (3R,4R)-4­methyl-3-(methyl-7H-pyrrolo [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-ß-oxo-1-piperidinepropanenitrile, 2­hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate (1:1) .

The solubility of tofacitinib citrate in water is 2.9 mg/mL.

Tofacitinib citrate has a molecular weight of 504.5 Daltons (or 312.4 Daltons as the tofacitinib free base) and a molecular formula of C16H20N6O•C6H8O7. The chemical structure of tofacitinib citrate is:

XELJANZ is supplied for oral administration as 5 mg tofacitinib (equivalent to 8 mg tofacitinib citrate) white round, immediate-release film-coated tablet. Each tablet of XELJANZ contains the appropriate amount of tofacitinib as a citrate salt and the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, HPMC 2910/Hypromellose 6cP, titanium dioxide, macrogol/PEG3350, and triacetin.

XELJANZ XR is supplied for oral administration as 11 mg tofacitinib (equivalent to 17.77 mg tofacitinib citrate) pink, oval, extended release film-coated tablet with a drilled hole at one end of the tablet band. Each tablet of XELJANZ XR contains the appropriate amount of tofacitinib as a citrate salt and the following inactive ingredients: sorbitol, hydroxyethyl cellulose, copovidone, magnesium stearate, cellulose acetate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPMC 2910/Hypromellose, titanium dioxide, triacetin, and red iron oxide. Printing ink contains shellac glaze, ammonium hydroxide, propylene glycol, and ferrosoferric oxide/black iron oxide.

Side effects

Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not predict the rates observed in a broader patient population in clinical practice.

The clinical studies described in the following sections were conducted using XELJANZ. Although other doses of XELJANZ have been studied, the recommended dose of XELJANZ is 5 mg twice daily.

The recommended dose for XELJANZ XR is 11 mg once daily.

The following data includes two Phase 2 and five Phase 3 double-blind, controlled, multicenter trials. In these trials, patients were randomized to doses of XELJANZ 5 mg twice daily (292 patients) and 10 mg twice daily (306 patients) monotherapy, XELJANZ 5 mg twice daily (1044 patients) and 10 mg twice daily (1043 patients) in combination with DMARDs (including methotrexate) and placebo (809 patients). All seven protocols included provisions for patients taking placebo to receive treatment with XELJANZ at Month 3 or Month 6 either by patient response (based on uncontrolled disease activity) or by design, so that adverse events cannot always be unambiguously attributed to a given treatment. Therefore some analyses that follow include patients who changed treatment by design or by patient response from placebo to XELJANZ in both the placebo and XELJANZ group of a given interval. Comparisons between placebo and XELJANZ were based on the first 3 months of exposure, and comparisons between XELJANZ 5 mg twice daily and XELJANZ 10 mg twice daily were based on the first 12 months of exposure.

The long-term safety population includes all patients who participated in a double-blind, controlled trial (including earlier development phase studies) and then participated in one of two long-term safety studies. The design of the long-term safety studies allowed for modification of XELJANZ doses according to clinical judgment. This limits the interpretation of the long-term safety data with respect to dose.

The most common serious adverse reactions were serious infections [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to any adverse reaction during the 0 to 3 months exposure in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trials was 4% for patients taking XELJANZ and 3% for placebo-treated patients.

Overall Infections

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, the overall frequency of infections was 20% and 22% in the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily groups, respectively, and 18% in the placebo group.

The most commonly reported infections with XELJANZ were upper respiratory tract infections, nasopharyngitis, and urinary tract infections (4%, 3%, and 2% of patients, respectively).

Serious Infections

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, serious infections were reported in 1 patient (0.5 events per 100 patient-years) who received placebo and 11 patients (1.7 events per 100 patient-years) who received XELJANZ 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily. The rate difference between treatment groups (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 1.1 (-0.4, 2.5) events per 100 patient-years for the combined 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ group minus placebo.

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 12 months exposure, serious infections were reported in 34 patients (2.7 events per 100 patient-years) who received 5 mg twice daily of XELJANZ and 33 patients (2.7 events per 100 patient-years) who received 10 mg twice daily of XELJANZ. The rate difference between XELJANZ doses (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was -0.1 (-1.3, 1.2) events per 100 patient-years for 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ minus 5 mg twice daily XELJANZ.

The most common serious infections included pneumonia, cellulitis, herpes zoster, and urinary tract infection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Tuberculosis

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, tuberculosis was not reported in patients who received placebo, 5 mg twice daily of XELJANZ, or 10 mg twice daily of XELJANZ.

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 12 months exposure, tuberculosis was reported in 0 patients who received 5 mg twice daily of XELJANZ and 6 patients (0.5 events per 100 patient-years) who received 10 mg twice daily of XELJANZ. The rate difference between XELJANZ doses (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 0.5 (0.1, 0.9) events per 100 patient-years for 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ minus 5 mg twice daily XELJANZ.

Cases of disseminated tuberculosis were also reported. The median XELJANZ exposure prior to diagnosis of tuberculosis was 10 months (range from 152 to 960 days) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Opportunistic Infections (Excluding Tuberculosis)

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, opportunistic infections were not reported in patients who received placebo, 5 mg twice daily of XELJANZ, or 10 mg twice daily of XELJANZ.

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 12 months exposure, opportunistic infections were reported in 4 patients (0.3 events per 100 patient-years) who received 5 mg twice daily of XELJANZ and 4 patients (0.3 events per 100 patient-years) who received 10 mg twice daily of XELJANZ. The rate difference between XELJANZ doses (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 0 (-0.5, 0.5) events per 100 patient-years for 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ minus 5 mg twice daily XELJANZ.

The median XELJANZ exposure prior to diagnosis of an opportunistic infection was 8 months (range from 41 to 698 days) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Malignancy

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 3 months exposure, malignancies excluding NMSC were reported in 0 patients who received placebo and 2 patients (0.3 events per 100 patient-years) who received either XELJANZ 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily. The rate difference between treatment groups (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 0.3 (-0.1, 0.7) events per 100 patient-years for the combined 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ group minus placebo.

In the seven controlled trials, during the 0 to 12 months exposure, malignancies excluding NMSC were reported in 5 patients (0.4 events per 100 patient-years) who received 5 mg twice daily of XELJANZ and 7 patients (0.6 events per 100 patient-years) who received 10 mg twice daily of XELJANZ. The rate difference between XELJANZ doses (and the corresponding 95% confidence interval) was 0.2 (-0.4, 0.7) events per 100 patient-years for 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ minus 5 mg twice daily XELJANZ. One of these malignancies was a case of lymphoma that occurred during the 0 to 12 month period in a patient treated with XELJANZ 10 mg twice daily.

The most common types of malignancy, including malignancies observed during the long-term extension, were lung and breast cancer, followed by gastric, colorectal, renal cell, prostate cancer, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Laboratory Abnormalities

Lymphopenia

In the controlled clinical trials, confirmed decreases in absolute lymphocyte counts below 500 cells/mm³ occurred in 0.04% of patients for the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ groups combined during the first 3 months of exposure.

Confirmed lymphocyte counts less than 500 cells/mm³ were associated with an increased incidence of treated and serious infections [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Neutropenia

In the controlled clinical trials, confirmed decreases in ANC below 1000 cells/mm³ occurred in 0.07% of patients for the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ groups combined during the first 3 months of exposure.

There were no confirmed decreases in ANC below 500 cells/mm³ observed in any treatment group.

There was no clear relationship between neutropenia and the occurrence of serious infections.

In the long-term safety population, the pattern and incidence of confirmed decreases in ANC remained consistent with what was seen in the controlled clinical trials [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Liver Enzyme Elevations

Confirmed increases in liver enzymes greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal (3x ULN) were observed in patients treated with XELJANZ. In patients experiencing liver enzyme elevation, modification of treatment regimen, such as reduction in the dose of concomitant DMARD, interruption of XELJANZ, or reduction in XELJANZ dose, resulted in decrease or normalization of liver enzymes.

In the controlled monotherapy trials (0-3 months), no differences in the incidence of ALT or AST elevations were observed between the placebo, and XELJANZ 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily groups.

In the controlled background DMARD trials (0-3 months), ALT elevations greater than 3x ULN were observed in 1.0%, 1.3% and 1.2% of patients receiving placebo, 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively. In these trials, AST elevations greater than 3x ULN were observed in 0.6%, 0.5% and 0.4% of patients receiving placebo, 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively.

One case of drug-induced liver injury was reported in a patient treated with XELJANZ 10 mg twice daily for approximately 2.5 months. The patient developed symptomatic elevations of AST and ALT greater than 3x ULN and bilirubin elevations greater than 2x ULN, which required hospitalizations and a liver biopsy.

Lipid Elevations

In the controlled clinical trials, dose-related elevations in lipid parameters (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) were observed at one month of exposure and remained stable thereafter. Changes in lipid parameters during the first 3 months of exposure in the controlled clinical trials are summarized below:

  • Mean LDL cholesterol increased by 15% in the XELJANZ 5 mg twice daily arm and 19% in the XELJANZ 10 mg twice daily arm.
  • Mean HDL cholesterol increased by 10% in the XELJANZ 5 mg twice daily arm and 12% in the XELJANZ 10 mg twice daily arm.
  • Mean LDL/HDL ratios were essentially unchanged in XELJANZ-treated patients.

In a controlled clinical trial, elevations in LDL cholesterol and ApoB decreased to pretreatment levels in response to statin therapy.

In the long-term safety population, elevations in lipid parameters remained consistent with what was seen in the controlled clinical trials.

Serum Creatinine Elevations

In the controlled clinical trials, dose-related elevations in serum creatinine were observed with XELJANZ treatment. The mean increase in serum creatinine was <0.1 mg/dL in the 12-month pooled safety analysis; however with increasing duration of exposure in the long-term extensions, up to 2% of patients were discontinued from XELJANZ treatment due to the protocol-specified discontinuation criterion of an increase in creatinine by more than 50% of baseline. The clinical significance of the observed serum creatinine elevations is unknown.

Other Adverse Reactions

Adverse reactions occurring in 2% or more of patients on 5 mg twice daily or 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ and at least 1% greater than that observed in patients on placebo with or without DMARD are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4: Adverse Reactions Occurring in at Least 2% or More of Patients on 5 or 10 mg Twice Daily XELJANZ With or Without DMARD (0-3 months) and at Least 1% Greater Than That Observed in Patients on Placebo

Preferred Term XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily
N = 1336 (%)
XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Daily*
N = 1349 (%)
Placebo
N = 809 (%)
Diarrhea 4.0 2.9 2.3
Nasopharyngitis 3.8 2.8 2.8
Upper respiratory tract infection 4.5 3.8 3.3
Headache 4.3 3.4 2.1
Hypertension 1.6 2.3 1.1
*The recommended dose of XELJANZ is 5 mg twice daily.

Other adverse reactions occurring in controlled and open-label extension studies included:

Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Anemia

Infections and infestations: Diverticulitis

Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Dehydration

Psychiatric disorders: Insomnia

Nervous system disorders: Paresthesia

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Dyspnea, cough, sinus congestion, interstitial lung disease (some fatal)

Gastrointestinal disorders: Abdominal pain, dyspepsia, vomiting, gastritis, nausea

Hepatobiliary disorders: Hepatic steatosis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Rash, erythema, pruritus

Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: Musculoskeletal pain, arthralgia, tendonitis, joint swelling

Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (including cysts and polyps): Non-melanoma skin cancers

General disorders and administration site conditions: Pyrexia, fatigue, peripheral edema

Clinical Experience In Methotrexate-Naïve Patients

Study VI was an active-controlled clinical trial in methotrexate-naïve patients [see Clinical Studies]. The safety experience in these patients was consistent with Studies I-V.

Warnings

Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.

Clinical pharmacology

Mechanism Of Action

Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor. JAKs are intracellular enzymes which transmit signals arising from cytokine or growth factor-receptor interactions on the cellular membrane to influence cellular processes of hematopoiesis and immune cell function. Within the signaling pathway, JAKs phosphorylate and activate Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) which modulate intracellular activity including gene expression. Tofacitinib modulates the signaling pathway at the point of JAKs, preventing the phosphorylation and activation of STATs. JAK enzymes transmit cytokine signaling through pairing of JAKs (e.g., JAK1/JAK3, JAK1/JAK2, JAK1/TyK2, JAK2/JAK2). Tofacitinib inhibited the in vitro activities of JAK1/JAK2, JAK1/JAK3, and JAK2/JAK2 combinations with IC50 of 406, 56, and 1377 nM, respectively. However, the relevance of specific JAK combinations to therapeutic effectiveness is not known.

Pharmacodynamics

Treatment with XELJANZ was associated with dose-dependent reductions of circulating CD16/56+ natural killer cells, with estimated maximum reductions occurring at approximately 8-10 weeks after initiation of therapy. These changes generally resolved within 2-6 weeks after discontinuation of treatment. Treatment with XELJANZ was associated with dose-dependent increases in B cell counts. Changes in circulating T-lymphocyte counts and T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+) were small and inconsistent. The clinical significance of these changes is unknown.

Total serum IgG, IgM, and IgA levels after 6-month dosing in patients with rheumatoid arthritis were lower than placebo; however, changes were small and not dose-dependent.

After treatment with XELJANZ in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, rapid decreases in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed and maintained throughout dosing. Changes in CRP observed with XELJANZ treatment do not reverse fully within 2 weeks after discontinuation, indicating a longer duration of pharmacodynamic activity compared to the pharmacokinetic half-life.

Pharmacokinetics

XELJANZ

Following oral administration of XELJANZ, peak plasma concentrations are reached within 0.5-1 hour, elimination half-life is ~3 hours and a dose-proportional increase in systemic exposure was observed in the therapeutic dose range. Steady state concentrations are achieved in 24-48 hours with negligible accumulation after twice daily administration.

XELJANZ XR

Following oral administration of XELJANZ XR, peak plasma concentrations are reached at 4 hours and half-life is ~6 hours. Steady state concentrations are achieved within 48 hours with negligible accumulation after once daily administration. AUC and Cmax of tofacitinib for XELJANZ XR 11 mg administered once daily are equivalent to those of XELJANZ 5 mg administered twice daily.

Absorption

XELJANZ

The absolute oral bioavailability of XELJANZ is 74%. Coadministration of XELJANZ with a high-fat meal resulted in no changes in AUC while Cmax was reduced by 32%. In clinical trials, XELJANZ was administered without regard to meals.

XELJANZ XR

Coadministration of XELJANZ XR with a high-fat meal resulted in no changes in AUC while Cmax was increased by 27% and Tmax was extended by approximately 1 hour.

Distribution

After intravenous administration, the volume of distribution is 87 L. The protein binding of tofacitinib is ~40%.Tofacitinib binds predominantly to albumin and does not appear to bind to α1-acid glycoprotein. Tofacitinib distributes equally between red blood cells and plasma.

Metabolism And Elimination

Clearance mechanisms for tofacitinib are approximately 70% hepatic metabolism and 30% renal excretion of the parent drug. The metabolism of tofacitinib is primarily mediated by CYP3A4 with minor contribution from CYP2C19. In a human radiolabeled study, more than 65% of the total circulating radioactivity was accounted for by unchanged tofacitinib, with the remaining 35% attributed to 8 metabolites, each accounting for less than 8% of total radioactivity. The pharmacologic activity of tofacitinib is attributed to the parent molecule.

Pharmacokinetics In Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Population PK analysis in rheumatoid arthritis patients indicated no clinically relevant change in tofacitinib exposure, after accounting for differences in renal function (i.e., creatinine clearance) between patients, based on age, weight, gender and race (Figure 1). An approximately linear relationship between body weight and volume of distribution was observed, resulting in higher peak (Cmax) and lower trough (Cmin) concentrations in lighter patients. However, this difference is not considered to be clinically relevant. The between-subject variability (% coefficient of variation) in AUC of tofacitinib is estimated to be approximately 27%.

Specific Populations

The effect of renal and hepatic impairment and other intrinsic factors on the pharmacokinetics of tofacitinib is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Impact of Intrinsic Factors on Tofacitinib Pharmacokinetics

* Supplemental doses are not necessary in patients after dialysis.

Reference values for weight, age, gender, and race comparisons are 70 kg, 55 years, male, and White, respectively; reference groups for renal and hepatic impairment data are subjects with normal renal and hepatic function.

Drug Interactions

Potential For XELJANZ/XELJANZ XR To Influence The PK Of Other Drugs

In vitro studies indicate that tofacitinib does not significantly inhibit or induce the activity of the major human drug-metabolizing CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) at concentrations exceeding 160 times the steady state Cmax of a 5 mg twice daily dose. These in vitro results were confirmed by a human drug interaction study showing no changes in the PK of midazolam, a highly sensitive CYP3A4 substrate, when coadministered with XELJANZ.

In rheumatoid arthritis patients, the oral clearance of tofacitinib does not vary with time, indicating that tofacitinib does not normalize CYP enzyme activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Therefore, coadministration with XELJANZ/XELJANZ XR is not expected to result in clinically relevant increases in the metabolism of CYP substrates in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

In vitro data indicate that the potential for tofacitinib to inhibit transporters such as P-glycoprotein, organic anionic or cationic transporters at therapeutic concentrations is low.

Dosing recommendations for coadministered drugs following administration with XELJANZ/XELJANZ XR are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Impact of Tofacitinib on PK of Other Drugs

Note: Reference group is administration of concomitant medication alone; OCT = Organic Cationic Transporter; MATE = Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion

Potential For Other Drugs To Influence The PK Of Tofacitinib

Since tofacitinib is metabolized by CYP3A4, interaction with drugs that inhibit or induce CYP3A4 is likely. Inhibitors of CYP2C19 alone or P-glycoprotein are unlikely to substantially alter the PK of tofacitinib. Dosing recommendations for XELJANZ/XELJANZ XR for administration with CYP inhibitors or inducers are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Impact of Other Drugs on PK of Tofacitinib

Note: Reference group is administration of tofacitinib alone

Clinical Studies

The XELJANZ clinical development program included two dose-ranging trials and five confirmatory trials. Although other doses have been studied, the recommended dose of XELJANZ is 5 mg twice daily.

Dose-Ranging Trials

Dose selection for XELJANZ was based on two pivotal dose-ranging trials.

Dose-Ranging Study 1 was a 6-month monotherapy trial in 384 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to a DMARD. Patients who previously received adalimumab therapy were excluded. Patients were randomized to 1 of 7 monotherapy treatments: XELJANZ 1, 3, 5, 10 or 15 mg twice daily, adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously every other week for 10 weeks followed by XELJANZ 5 mg twice daily for 3 months, or placebo. Dose-Ranging Study 2 was a 6-month trial in which 507 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to MTX alone received one of 6 dose regimens of XELJANZ (20 mg once daily; 1, 3, 5, 10 or 15 mg twice daily), or placebo added to background MTX.

The results of XELJANZ-treated patients achieving ACR20 responses in Studies 1 and 2 are shown in Figure 4. Although a dose-response relationship was observed in Study 1, the proportion of patients with an ACR20 response did not clearly differ between the 10 mg and 15 mg doses. In Study 2, a smaller proportion of patients achieved an ACR20 response in the placebo and XELJANZ 1 mg groups compared to patients treated with the other XELJANZ doses. However, there was no difference in the proportion of responders among patients treated with XELJANZ 3, 5, 10, 15 mg twice daily or 20 mg once daily doses.

Figure 4: Proportion of Patients with ACR20 Response at Month 3 in Dose-Ranging Studies 1 and 2

Study 1 was a dose-ranging monotherapy trial not designed to provide comparative effectiveness data and should not be interpreted as evidence of superiority to adalimumab.

Confirmatory Trials

Study I was a 6-month monotherapy trial in which 610 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to a DMARD (nonbiologic or biologic) received XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo. At the Month 3 visit, all patients randomized to placebo treatment were advanced in a blinded fashion to a second predetermined treatment of XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily. The primary endpoints at Month 3 were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response, changes in Health Assessment Questionnaire - Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and rates of Disease Activity Score DAS28-4(ESR) less than 2.6.

Study II was a 12-month trial in which 792 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to a nonbiologic DMARD received XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo added to background DMARD treatment (excluding potent immunosuppressive treatments such as azathioprine or cyclosporine). At the Month 3 visit, nonresponding patients were advanced in a blinded fashion to a second predetermined treatment of XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily. At the end of Month 6, all placebo patients were advanced to their second predetermined treatment in a blinded fashion. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response at Month 6, changes in HAQ-DI at Month 3, and rates of DAS28-4(ESR) less than 2.6 at Month 6.

-Study III was a 12-month trial in 717 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to MTX. Patients received XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily, adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously every other week, or placebo added to background MTX. Placebo patients were advanced as in Study II. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response at Month 6, HAQ-DI at Month 3, and DAS28-4(ESR) less than 2.6 at Month 6.

Study IV was a 2-year trial with a planned analysis at 1 year in which 797 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to MTX received XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo added to background MTX. Placebo patients were advanced as in Study II. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response at Month 6, mean change from baseline in van der Heijde-modified total Sharp Score (mTSS) at Month 6, HAQ-DI at Month 3, and DAS28-4(ESR) less than 2.6 at Month 6.

Study V was a 6-month trial in which 399 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to at least one approved TNF-inhibiting biologic agent received XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo added to background MTX. At the Month 3 visit, all patients randomized to placebo treatment were advanced in a blinded fashion to a second predetermined treatment of XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily. The primary endpoints at Month 3 were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response, HAQ-DI, and DAS28-4(ESR) less than 2.6.

Study VI was a 2-year monotherapy trial with a planned analysis at 1 year in which 952 MTX-naïve patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis received XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily or MTX dose-titrated over 8 weeks to 20 mg weekly. The primary endpoints were mean change from baseline in van der Heijde-modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS) at Month 6 and the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR70 response at Month 6.

Clinical Response

The percentages of XELJANZ-treated patients achieving ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 responses in Studies I, IV, and V are shown in Table 5. Similar results were observed with Studies II and III. In trials I-V, patients treated with either 5 or 10 mg twice daily XELJANZ had higher ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 response rates versus placebo, with or without background DMARD treatment, at Month 3 and Month 6. Higher ACR20 response rates were observed within 2 weeks compared to placebo. In the 12-month trials, ACR response rates in XELJANZ-treated patients were consistent at 6 and 12 months.

Table 5: Proportion of Patients with an ACR Response

Na Percent of Patients
Monotherapy in Nonbiologic or Biologic DMARD Inadequate Respondersc MTX Inadequate Respondersd TNF Inhibitor Inadequate Responderse
Study I Study IV Study V
PBO XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Dailyf PBO+ MTX XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily + MTX XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Daily + MTXf PBO+ MTX XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily + MTX XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Daily + MTXf
122 243 245 160 321 316 132 133 134
ACR20
Month 3 26% 59% 65% 27% 55% 67% 24% 41% 48%
Month 6 NAb 69% 70% 25% 50% 62% NA 51% 54%
ACR50
Month 3 12% 31% 36% 8% 29% 37% 8% 26% 28%
Month 6 NA 42% 46% 9% 32% 44% NA 37% 30%
ACR70
Month 3 6% 15% 20% 3% 11% 17% 2% 14% 10%
Month 6 NA 22% 29% 1% 14% 23% NA 16% 16%
a N is number of randomized and treated patients.
b NA Not applicable, as data for placebo treatment is not available beyond 3 months in Studies I and V due to placebo advancement.
c Inadequate response to at least one DMARD (biologic or nonbiologic) due to lack of efficacy or toxicity.
d Inadequate response to MTX defined as the presence of sufficient residual disease activity to meet the entry criteria.
e Inadequate response to a least one TNF inhibitor due to lack of efficacy and/or intolerance.
f The recommended dose of XELJANZ is 5 mg twice daily.

In Study IV, a greater proportion of patients treated with XELJANZ 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily plus MTX achieved a low level of disease activity as measured by a DAS28-4(ESR) less than 2.6 at 6 months compared to those treated with MTX alone (Table 6).

Table 6: Proportion of Patients with DAS28-4(ESR) Less Than 2.6 with Number of Residual Active Joints

DAS28-4(ESR) Less Than 2.6 Study IV
Placebo + MTX XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily + MTX XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Daily + MTX*
160 321 316
Proportion of responders at Month 6 (n) 1% (2) 6% (19) 13% (42)
Of responders, proportion with 0 active joints (n) 50% (1) 42% (8) 36% (15)
Of responders, proportion with 1 active joint (n) 0 5% (1) 17% (7)
Of responders, proportion with 2 active joints (n) 0 32% (6) 7% (3)
Of responders, proportion with 3 or more active joints (n) 50% (1) 21% (4) 40% (17)
*The recommended dose of XELJANZ is 5 mg twice daily.

The results of the components of the ACR response criteria for Study IV are shown in Table 7. Similar results were observed for XELJANZ in Studies I, II, III, V, and VI.

Table 7: Components of ACR Response at Month 3

Component (mean) a Study IV
XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily + MTX
N=321
XELJANZ 10 mgd Twice Daily + MTX
N=316
Placebo + MTX
N=160
Baseline Month 3a Baseline Month 3a Baseline Month 3a
Number of tender joints (0-68) 24 (14) 13 (14) 23 (15) 10 (12) 23 (13) 18 (14)
Number of swollen joints (0-66) 14 (8) 6 (8) 14 (8) 6 (7) 14 (9) 10 (9)
Painb 58 (23) 34 (23) 58 (24) 29 (22) 55 (24) 47 (24)
Patient global assessmentb 58 (24) 35 (23) 57 (23) 29 (20) 54 (23) 47 (24)
Disability index (HAQ-DI)c 1.41 (0.68) 0.99 (0.65) 1.40 (0.66) 0.84 (0.64) 1.32 (0.67) 1.19 (0.68)
Physician global assessmentb 59 (16) 30 (19) 58 (17) 24 (17) 56 (18) 43 (22)
CRP (mg/L) 15.3 (19.0) 7.1 (19.1) 17.1 (26.9) 4.4 (8.6) 13.7 (14.9) 14.6 (18.7)
aData shown is mean (Standard Deviation) at Month 3.
bVisual analog scale: 0 = best, 100 = worst.
cHealth Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index: 0 = best, 3 = worst; 20 questions; categories: dressing and grooming, arising, eating, walking, hygiene, reach, grip, and activities.
dThe recommended dose of XELJANZ is 5 mg twice daily.

The percent of ACR20 responders by visit for Study IV is shown in Figure 5. Similar responses were observed for XELJANZ in Studies I, II, III, V, and VI.

Figure 5: Percentage of ACR20 Responders by Visit for Study IV

Radiographic Response

Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of XELJANZ on structural joint damage. In Study IV and Study VI, progression of structural joint damage was assessed radiographically and expressed as change from baseline in mTSS and its components, the erosion score and joint space narrowing score, at Months 6 and 12. The proportion of patients with no radiographic progression (mTSS change less than or equal to 0) was also assessed.

In Study IV, XELJANZ 10 mg twice daily plus background MTX reduced the progression of structural damage compared to placebo plus MTX at Month 6. When given at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, XELJANZ exhibited similar effects on mean progression of structural damage (not statistically significant). These results are shown in Table 8. Analyses of erosion and joint space narrowing scores were consistent with the overall results.

In the placebo plus MTX group, 74% of patients experienced no radiographic progression at Month 6 compared to 84% and 79% of patients treated with XELJANZ plus MTX 5 or 10 mg twice daily.

In Study VI, XELJANZ monotherapy inhibited the progression of structural damage compared to MTX at Months 6 and 12 as shown in Table 8. Analyses of erosion and joint space narrowing scores were consistent with the overall results.

In the MTX group, 55% of patients experienced no radiographic progression at Month 6 compared to 73% and 77% of patients treated with XELJANZ 5 or 10 mg twice daily

Table 8: Radiographic Changes at Months 6 and 12

  Study IV
Placebo
N=139 Mean (SD)a
XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily
N=277 Mean (SD) a
XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily Mean Difference from Placebob (CI) XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Dailyd
N=290 Mean (SD) a
XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Daily Mean Difference from Placebob (CI)
mTSSc
Baseline 33 (42) 31 (48) - 37 (54) -
Month 6 0.5 (2.0) 0.1 (1.7) -0.3 (-0.7, 0.0) 0.1 (2.0) -0.4 (-0.8, 0.0)
  Study VI
MTX
N=166 Mean (SD)a
XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily
N=346 Mean (SD) a
XELJANZ 5 mg Twice Daily Mean Difference from MTXb (CI) XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Dailyd
N=369 Mean (SD) a
XELJANZ 10 mg Twice Daily Mean Difference from MTXb (CI)
mTSSc
Baseline 17 (29) 20 (40) - 19 (39) -
Month 6 0.8 (2.7) 0.2 (2.3) -0.7 (-1.0, -0.3) 0.0 (1.2) -0.8 (-1.2, -0.4)
Month 12 1.3 (3.7) 0.4 (3.0) -0.9 (-1.4, -0.4) 0.0 (1.5) -1.3 (-1.8, -0.8)
aSD = Standard Deviation
bDifference between least squares means XELJANZ minus placebo or MTX (95% CI = 95% confidence interval)
c Month 6 and Month 12 data are mean change from baseline.
d The recommended dose of XELJANZ is 5 mg twice daily.

Physical Function Response

Improvement in physical functioning was measured by the HAQ-DI. Patients receiving XELJANZ 5 and 10 mg twice daily demonstrated greater improvement from baseline in physical functioning compared to placebo at Month 3.

The mean (95% CI) difference from placebo in HAQ-DI improvement from baseline at Month 3 in Study III was -0.22 (-0.35, -0.10) in patients receiving 5 mg XELJANZ twice daily and -0.32 (-0.44, -0.19) in patients receiving 10 mg XELJANZ twice daily. Similar results were obtained in Studies I, II, IV and V. In the 12-month trials, HAQ-DI results in XELJANZ-treated patients were consistent at 6 and 12 months.

Other Health-Related Outcomes

General health status was assessed by the Short Form health survey (SF-36). In studies I, IV, and V, patients receiving XELJANZ 5 mg twice daily or XELJANZ 10 mg twice daily demonstrated greater improvement from baseline compared to placebo in physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS) scores and in all 8 domains of the SF-36 at Month 3.

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Medications

What are some other side effects of Tofacitinib Tablets?

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Headache.
  • Loose stools (diarrhea).
  • Signs of a common cold.
  • Runny nose.
  • Sore throat.
  • Stuffy nose.

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

How do I store and/or throw out Tofacitinib Tablets?

  • Store in the original container at room temperature.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Check with your pharmacist about how to throw out unused drugs.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer

  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else's drugs.
  • Keep a list of all your drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your doctor.
  • Talk with the doctor before starting any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • This medicine comes with an extra patient fact sheet called a Medication Guide. Read it with care. Read it again each time this medicine is refilled. If you have any questions about this medicine (tofacitinib tablets), please talk with the doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine (tofacitinib tablets). It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. You must talk with the healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine (tofacitinib tablets).

Review Date: October 4, 2017

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