Pancrelipase Delayed Release Capsules

Name: Pancrelipase Delayed Release Capsules

Description

ZENPEP is a pancreatic enzyme preparation consisting of pancrelipase, an extract derived from porcine pancreatic glands. Pancrelipase contains multiple enzyme classes, including porcine-derived lipases, proteases, and amylases.

Pancrelipase is a cream-colored powder. It is miscible in water and practically insoluble or insoluble in alcohol and ether.

Each capsule for oral administration contains enteric-coated beads (1.8-1.9mm for 3,000 and 5,000 USP units of lipase, 2.2-2.5mm for 10,000, 15,000, 20,000, 25,000, and 40,000 USP units of lipase).

The active ingredient evaluated in clinical trials is lipase. ZENPEP is dosed by lipase units. Other active ingredients include protease and amylase.

Inactive ingredients in ZENPEP include colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hydrogenated castor oil, hypromellose phthalate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, talc, and triethyl citrate and are contained in hypromellose capsules. The imprinting red ink on the 3,000 capsules strength contains, antifoam DC 1510, industrial methylated spirit, iron oxide red C.I. 77491-E172, n-butyl alcohol, shellac and soya lecithin.

3,000 USP units of lipase; 10,000 USP units of protease; 16,000 USP units of amylase. Capsules have a white opaque cap and a white opaque body with imprint “APTALIS 3”. The shells contain carnauba wax or talc, carrageenan, hypromellose, potassium chloride, titanium oxide, and water.

The imprinting blue ink on the capsules strengths 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 and 25,000 contains dehydrated alcohol, FD&C Blue #2 aluminum lake C.I. 73015-E132, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol, shellac and strong ammonia solution.

5,000 USP units of lipase; 17,000 USP units of protease; 27,000 USP units of amylase. Capsules have a white opaque cap and a white opaque body with imprint “APTALIS 5”. The shells contain carnauba wax or talc, carrageenan, hypromellose, potassium chloride, titanium oxide, and water.

10,000 USP units of lipase; 34,000 USP units of protease; 55,000 USP units of amylase. Capsules have a yellow opaque cap and a white opaque body with imprint “APTALIS 10”. The shells contain carnauba wax or talc, carrageenan, hypromellose, potassium chloride, titanium oxide, water and yellow ferric oxide.

15,000 USP units of lipase; 51,000 USP units of protease; 82,000 USP units of amylase. Capsules have a red opaque cap and a white opaque body with imprint “APTALIS 15”. The shells contain carnauba wax or talc, carrageenan, hypromellose, potassium chloride, red ferric oxide, titanium oxide, and water.

20,000 USP units of lipase; 68,000 USP units of protease; 109,000 USP units of amylase. Capsules have a green opaque cap and a white opaque body with imprint “APTALIS 20”. The shells contain carnauba wax or talc, carrageenan, FD&C Blue #2, hypromellose, potassium chloride, titanium oxide, water, and yellow ferric oxide.

25,000 USP units of lipase; 85,000 USP units of protease; 136,000 USP units of amylase. Capsules have a blue opaque cap and a white opaque body with imprint “APTALIS 25”. The shells contain carnauba wax or talc, carrageenan, FD&C Blue #2, hypromellose, potassium chloride, titanium oxide, and water.

40,000 USP units of lipase; 136,000 USP units of protease; 218,000 USP units of amylase. Capsules have an orange opaque cap and a white opaque body, printed with “APTALIS40”. The shells contain carnauba wax or talc, carrageenan, FD&C Yellow #6, hypromellose, potassium chloride, titanium oxide, and water.

Indications

ZENPEP® (pancrelipase) is indicated for the treatment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis or other conditions.

Side effects

The most serious adverse reactions reported with different pancreatic enzyme products of the same active ingredient (pancrelipase) include fibrosing colonopathy, hyperuricemia and allergic reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

The short-term safety of ZENPEP was assessed in two clinical trials conducted in 53 patients, ages 1 to 23 years, with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) due to CF. In both studies, ZENPEP was administered in doses of approximately 5,000 lipase units per kilogram per day, for lengths of treatment ranging from 19 to 42 days. The population was nearly evenly distributed in gender, and approximately 96% of patients were Caucasian.

Study 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-treatment, crossover study of 34 patients, ages 7 to 23 years, with EPI due to CF. In this study, patients were randomized to receive ZENPEP at individually titrated doses (not to exceed 2,500 lipase units per kilogram per meal) or matching placebo for 6 to 7 days of treatment, followed by crossover to the alternate treatment for an additional 6 to 7 days. The mean exposure to ZENPEP during this study, including titration period and open label transition, was 30 days.

The incidence of adverse events (regardless of causality) was similar during double blind ZENPEP treatment (56%) and placebo treatment (50%). The most common adverse events reported during the study were gastrointestinal complaints, which were reported more commonly during placebo treatment (41%) than during ZENPEP treatment (32%), and headache, which was reported more commonly during ZENPEP treatment (15%) than during placebo treatment (0). The type and incidence of adverse events were similar in children (711 years), adolescents (12-16 years), and adults (greater than 18 years).

Because clinical trials are conducted under controlled conditions, the observed adverse event rates may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Table 1 enumerates treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in at least 2 patients (greater than or equal to 6%) treated with either ZENPEP or placebo in Study 1. Adverse events were classified by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terminology.

Table 1: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events Occurring in at least 2 Patients (greater than or equal to 6%) During Treatment Period and Crossover Treatment Period of the Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Study of ZENPEP (Study 1)

MedDRA Primary System Organ Class Preferred Term ZENPEP
(N=34) %
Placebo
(N=32) %
Gastrointestinal Disorders
  Abdominal pain 6 (18%) 9 (28%)
  Flatulence 2 (6%) 3 (9%)
Nervous System Disorders
  Headache 5 (15%) 0
Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications
  Contusion 2 (6%) 0
Investigations
  Weight decreased 2 (6%) 2 (6%)
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
  Cough 2 (6%) 0
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions
  Early Satiety 2 (6%) 0

Study 2 was an open-label, uncontrolled study of 19 patients, ages 1 to 6 years, with EPI due to CF. After a 414 days screening period on the current PEP, patients in Study 2 received ZENPEP at individually titrated doses ranging between 2,300 and 10,000 lipase units per kg body weight per day, with a mean of approximately 5,000 lipase units per kg body weight per day (not to exceed 2,500 lipase units per kilogram per meal) for 14 days. There was no comparator treatment, and adverse events were collected on patient diary entries and at each study visit.

The most commonly reported adverse events were gastrointestinal, including abdominal pain and steatorrhea, and were similar in type and frequency to those reported in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Study 1).

Postmarketing Experience

Postmarketing data for ZENPEP have been available since 2009. The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Zenpep. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The most commonly reported adverse events are gastrointestinal disorders (including abdominal distension, abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, constipation and nausea) and skin disorders (including pruritus, urticaria, and rash).

In patients at risk for abnormal blood glucose levels glycemic control may be affected by administration of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Consideration should be given to additional glucose monitoring in these patients.

Delayed-and immediate-release pancreatic enzyme products with different formulations of the same active ingredient (pancrelipase) have been used for the treatment of patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis and other conditions, such as chronic pancreatitis. The long-term safety profile of these products has been described in the medical literature. The most serious adverse events include fibrosing colonopathy, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS), recurrence of pre-existing carcinoma, and severe allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, asthma, hives, and pruritus.

In general, pancreatic enzyme products have a well defined and favorable risk-benefit profile in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

Overdose

In Study 1, a 10 year-old patient was administered a dose of 10,856 lipase units per kg body weight of ZENPEP for a period of one day. The patient did not experience any adverse events as a result of the dose increase, nor did this patient experience any adverse events during a 44-day follow-up period. No abnormalities from analyses of safety labs (chemistry, hematology, urinalysis or uric acid) were noted.

Chronic high doses of pancreatic enzyme products have been associated with fibrosing colonopathy and colonic strictures [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. High doses of pancreatic enzyme products have been associated with hyperuricosuria and hyperuricemia, and should be used with caution in patients with a history of hyperuricemia, gout, or renal impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

Clinical pharmacology

Mechanism Of Action

The pancreatic enzymes in ZENPEP catalyze the hydrolysis of fats to monoglycerides, glycerol, and free fatty acids, protein into peptides and amino acids, and starch into dextrins and short chain sugars such as maltose and maltriose in the duodenum and proximal small intestine, thereby acting like digestive enzymes physiologically secreted by the pancreas.

Pharmacokinetics

The pancreatic enzymes in ZENPEP are enteric-coated to minimize destruction or inactivation in gastric acid. ZENPEP is designed to release most of the enzymes in vivo at pH greater than 5.5. Pancreatic enzymes are not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in any appreciable amount.

Clinical Studies

The short-term safety and efficacy of ZENPEP were evaluated in 2 studies conducted in 53 patients, ages 1 to 23 years, with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) associated with cystic fibrosis (CF).

Study 1, was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 34 patients, ages 7 to 23 years, with EPI due to CF. The final analysis population was limited to 32 patients, who completed both double-blind treatment periods, and were included in the efficacy analysis population. Patients were randomized to receive ZENPEP or matching placebo for 6 to 7 days of treatment, followed by crossover to the alternate treatment for an additional 6 to 7 days. The mean dose during the controlled treatment periods ranged from a mean dose of 3,900 lipase units per kilogram per day to 5,700 lipase units per kilogram per day. All patients consumed a high-fat diet (greater than or equal to 100 grams of fat per day) during the treatment period.

The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean difference in the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) between ZENPEP and placebo treatment. The CFA was determined by a 72-hour stool collection during both treatments, when both fat excretion and fat ingestion were measured. Each patient's CFA during placebo treatment was used as their no-treatment CFA value.

Mean CFA was 88% with ZENPEP treatment compared to 63% with placebo treatment. The mean difference in CFA was 26 percentage points in favor of ZENPEP treatment with 95% Confidence Interval of (19, 32) and p < 0.001.

Subgroup analyses of the CFA results showed that mean change in CFA was greater in patients with lower no-treatment (placebo) CFA values than in patients with higher no-treatment (placebo) CFA values. There were similar responses to ZENPEP by age and gender.

Study 2, was an open-label, uncontrolled study of 19 patients, ages 1 to 6 years (mean age 4 years), with EPI due to CF. Approximately half of the patients were ages 1 to 3 years. Study 2 compared a measurement of fat malabsorption, spot fecal fat testing, before (while receiving therapy with another commercial PEP) and after oral administration of Zenpep capsules with each meal or snack.

All patients in Study 2 were transitioned to ZENPEP from their usual PEP treatment. After a 4-14 days screening period on the current PEP, patients in Study 2 received ZENPEP at individually titrated doses ranging between 2,300 and 10,000 lipase units per kg body weight per day, with a mean of approximately 5,000 lipase units per kg body weight per day (not to exceed 2,500 lipase units per kilogram per meal) for 14 days. There was no wash-out period. Overall, patients showed similar control of fat malabsorption by spot fecal fat testing when switched to ZENPEP treatment at similar doses.

REFERENCES

1. Borowitz DS, Grand RJ, Durie PR, et al. Use of pancreatic enzyme supplements for patients with cystic fibrosis in the context of fibrosing colonopathy. Journal of Pediatrics. 1995; 127: 681-684.

2. Borowitz DS, Baker RD, Stallings V. Consensus report on nutrition for pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology Nutrition. 2002 Sep; 35: 246-259.

3. Stallings VA, Start LJ, Robinson KA, et al. Evidence-based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency: results of a systematic review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2008; 108: 832-839.

4. Smyth RL, Ashby D, O'Hea U, et al. Fibrosing colonopathy in cystic fibrosis: results of a case-control study.9 Lancet. 1995; 346: 1247-1251.

5. FitzSimmons SC, Burkhart GA, Borowitz DS, et al. High-dose pancreatic-enzyme supplements and fibrosing colonopathy in children with cystic fibrosis. New England Journal of Medicine. 1997; 336: 1283-1289.

What happens if i miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

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